A well installed microcode bug will be almost impossible to detect. I am a programmer. I am a very bottom-up thinker. I think the major good idea in Unix was its clean and simple interface: open, close, read, and write. I wanted to avoid, special IO for terminals. I wanted to have virtual memory, at least as it's coupled with file systems. I wanted to separate data from programs, because data and instructions are very different. If you want to go somewhere, goto is the best way to get there. In college, before video games, we would amuse ourselves by posing programming exercises. It's always good to take an orthogonal view of something. It develops ideas. No amount of source-level verification or scrutiny will protect you from using untrusted code. One of my most productive days was throwing away 1000 lines of code. That brings me to Dennis Ritchie. Our collaboration has been a thing of beauty. The X server has to be the biggest program I've ever seen that doesn't do anything for you. There are no projects per se in the Computing Sciences Research Center. There's a lot of power in executing data - generating data and executing data. We have persistant objects, they're called files. We tried to avoid, you know, records. When in doubt, use brute force. You can't trust code that you did not totally create yourself. If you give me the right kind of Tinker Toys, I can imagine the building. When I see a top-down description of a system or language that has infinite libraries described by layers and layers, all I just see is a morass. I can't understand something presented to me that's very complex. Maybe I do what I do because if I built anything more complicated, I couldn't understand it. What is or is not implemented in the kernel represents both a great responsibility and a great power Throughout, simplicity has been substituted for efficiency. Complex algorithms are used only if their complexity can be localized. My experience and some of my friends' experience is that Linux is quite unreliable. Microsoft is really unreliable but Linux is worse. I'd spell creat with an e. who cares. lgtm I'm a mere hundred pages of code from serving Datakit. I know nothing. Maybe I should have screwed up. There's going to be no serious problem after this. Multics is a powerful teaching tool. I just hate to be pushed around by some @#$%^& machine. So, if you put a G on the front you have to put a zero on the back? No. thanks. It does everything Unix does only less reliably. I imagine people programmed in Fortran for the same reason they took three-legged races. rob, you shouldn't have shut down this discussion.